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Parents, Peers, Drugs, and School Part 1
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Monitoring the Future with Structural Equations Modeling (SEM)

 

The goal of this blog is to explain a theoretical and exploratory decision on a hypothetical model to explain how engagement in school and social capital influence achievement and happiness for high school youth. The following models fit best theoretically and empirically. 

Latent variables were determined by exploring the inter-correlation of variables based on initial hypothesized categories (see List of All Relevant Variables In MTF 2008). Based on these finding the following latent variables were chosen for the analysis. 

 

Overview of Latent Variables:

 

Engagement= a) behaveà reverse of misbehave, b) don't cutà reverse of cut school, c) do best work

Parents= a) parents know where you go after school, b) parents know who your friends are, and c) parents know where you go at night

Peers= a) going to parties, b) going on dates, and c) daily visits with friends

Substance use= frequency of a) cigarette, b) marijuana, and c) alcohol use

Education= a) grades, b) expectations to go to college, and c) expectations to graduate

Enjoyment= a) enjoy life, b) happy today, c) positive self-attitude

 

School Engagement Model

Path Analysis for School Engagement Model:

  1. Engage(ment in school) affects Achieve(ment in school).
  2. Engage(ment in school) affects Enjoy(ment).
  3. Engage(ment in school) affects Substance (use).
  4. Substance (use) affects Achieve(ment in school).
  5. Achieve(ment in school) affects Enjoy(ment).
  6. Substance (use) affects Enjoy(ment).

 

Social Capital Model

Path Analysis for Social Capital Model:

  1. Parents (awareness) affect Peer (relationships)
    1. Parents (awareness) affect Substance (use)
    2. Parents (awareness) affect Achieve(ment in school)
    3. Parents (awareness) affect Enjoy(ment)
    4. Peer (relationships) affect Substance (use)
    5. Peer (relationships) affect Achieve(ment in school)
    6. Peer (relationships) affect Enjoy(ment)
    7. Substance (use) affects Achieve(ment in school)
    8. Substance (use) affects Enjoy(ment)
    9. Achieve(ment in school) affects on Enjoy(ment)

 

 


Mixed Model

Path Analysis for School Engagement with Social Capital Model:

  1. Parents (awareness) affect Peer (relationships)
  2. Parents (awareness) affect Substance (use)
  3. Parents (awareness) affect Achieve(ment in school)
  4. Parents (awareness) affects Enjoy(ment)
  5. Peer (relationships) affect Substance (use)
  6. Peer (relationships) affect Achieve(ment in school)
  7. Peer (relationships) affect Enjoy(ment)
  8. Substance (use) affects Achieve(ment in school)
  9. Substance (use) affects Enjoy(ment)
  10. Achieve(ment in school) affects on Enjoy(ment)
  11. Engage(ment in school) affects Achieve(ment in school).
  12. Engage(ment in school) affects Enjoy(ment).
  13. Engage(ment in school) affects Substance (use).
  14. Parents (awareness) affect Engage(ment in school)
  15. Peer (relationships) affect Engage(ment in school)

Above we see the hypothesized model. Our model above assumes that there are 3 sets of latent variables (Parent influences, Social Influences, and Substance Use) that explain students' school performance (education) and psychological well-being (enjoy). Two age groups are examined: 8th grade and 10th grade. This model assumes that parental influences are exogenous, and hence one's parents' involvement is not a result of one's behaviors.

This model shows us how parental control and socialization with peers drive students to use substances, achieve, and enjoy life. Parents are the beginning point of our model, because before a child can associate with peers, he must first deal with his or her parents. Enjoyment is the end result of our model. The NFI (normed fit index) should be above .9, and the RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) should be less than .6 or .8 to show that we have a significant model fit. In every subgroup of the data, this model fit was obtained. 

I narrowed down each latent variable to 3 manifest indicators. Parent Influences is defined by the variables: 1) Knowing who their child's friends are, 2) Knowing where they go after school, and 3) Knowing where they go at night. Peer relationships is defined by the variables: 1) Going out to parties, 2) Going out on dates, and 3) Going out with friends. Substance use is defined by the variables: 1) Smoking cigarettes, 2) Times using marijuana, and 3) Times drinking alcohol. Education is defined by the variables: 1) Grades in school, 2) Expectations to study in college, and 3) Hours of homework completed. Enjoyment is defined by the variables: 1) Positive self-attitude, 2) Feeling happy with life, and 3) Feeling satisfied with oneself. 

An assumption of this model is that parents' involvement influences children's behaviors (substance use, education, social activities). An opposite assumption is discussed later in this paper, that children's behaviorsinfluence parents' involvement. For example, if one has good grades one's parents may have less concern about knowing where one goes out to at night, or if one drinks alcohol a lot, one's parents may have more concern as a result. 

 

The results of the research will be presented soon in a separate blog.

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1
Anonymous
25-Oct-2016, 8:30
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2
Anonymous
12-Aug-2016, 17:08
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3
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4
Anonymous
08-Oct-2012, 0:14
CareOne offers two seevrcis: credit counseling and debt settlement. Being enrolled in a debt management program would cause your credit report to state "enrolled in debt management." This does not specifically damage your credit rating but it would make it virtually impossible to qualify for new credit while you are enrolled in the program but that's the whole point of being enrolled in a debt management program to begin with to stop using credit.CareOne also does does /debt settlement. Stay away from any "" company that promises to cut your debt and payments in half through debt settlement .This is a risky tactic of deliberately ceasing all payments to creditors and forcing your accounts into default to attempt settlements. You pay a monthly fee to a debt consolidator .this entire fee goes towards building a settlement account and to the consolidator's fees to “settle” your accounts in the future. Your companies will deliberately not be paid so that all the accounts will default/charge-off so that they can attempt settlements at around 50%. If you are current on your accounts, this process will ruin your credit rating for sure. Debt settlement is like a roll off the dice with your finances You can never predict how your creditors will respond to the deliberate defaulting of your accounts they might settle at 50% or they might serve you a summons, take you to court and if they win, you could be looking at wage garnishment.Many people who sign up with “” firms incorrectly assume that they have the power to force your creditors to accept settlements they don't. Your creditors have the right to refuse settlements and take you to court. If you want to enroll in a non profit debt management program then I would advise to use the real one .CCCS. Contact your local Red Cross for a referral to the local Consumer Credit Counseling Services (CCCS). They can negotiate reduced interest and payments. They will require you to stop using all credit and to cut up your cards. Your credit report will be updated to "enrolled in debt management." This does not damage your credit, but it may make it difficult to obtain new credit while you are enrolled in their program .so don't use this service if you anticipate applying for a new apartment, car loan or mortgage anytime soon, as you would might be denied while you're enrolled in the CCCS debt management program CCCS counselors will often tell people to not file for bankruptcy when they really should. If your debt is overwhelming relative to your income/assets and the reduced payments negotiated by CCCS simply will not work, then you should think about filing for Chapter 7 bankruptcy

5
Anonymous
09-Aug-2011, 1:19
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6
Anonymous
08-Aug-2011, 12:54
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